INTERNATIONAL METROPOLIS CONFERENCE 2017

18 SEPTEMBER - 22 SEPTEMBER 2017, WORLD FORUM, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS

Workshops


Wednesday 20 September
Round 2 - 16.00 - 17.30h


Below is the complete list of workshops given on this day and time.

Please note that some workshops are following up on each other and are given on multiple days / rounds. This is mentioned in the text.

When choosing your personal program you have to fill in for each round which workshop you would like to attend, also when workshops are following up on each other.

There will be two symposia ('Business as usual?' and 'Turkey at the Crossroads of Migration') organised, that covers each day round 1 and round 2.

One symposium (The Hague: Migration and Integration on Site) is organised outside the conference venue (on Tuesday and Wednesday). If you want to attend this symposium please select round 1 and round 2. Buses will be ready to bring you to this symposium venue.

Workshop locations

Workshop Location
Workshop 4.1  Mississipi
Workshop 4.2  Europe 2
Workshop 4.4  Africa
Workshop 4.5 Europe 1
Workshop 4.6 Kilimanjaro 2
Workshop 4.7  Everest 1
Workshop 4.9 Everest 2
Workshop 4.10 North America
Workshop 4.12 Amazon
Workshop 4.13  Yangtze 1
Workshop 4.14 Yangtze 2
Workshop 4.15 Central America 
Workshop 4.16 Antartica 
Workshop 4.17 South America
Workshop 4.18 E Extern

 

Workshop 4.1

Social assistance


In what ways might the operational practices and procedural rules of administering subsistence benefits at German local level jobcentres shape (in)equality of access among EU migrants, and compared to German-born nationals? For whom does the European Union’s freedom of movement work in practice? This paper, being part of a larger PhD project on EU citizens' social rights in Germany, examines EU mobile citizens' access to Unemployment Benefit II, which is the German social assistance benefit for those able to work.
The research explores whether and how understandings of intersecting 'ethnic deservingness' or belonging are articulated and negotiated at the local street-level. It does so by delving into the justifications of eligibility mobilised by those administering benefit claims and by EU migrants themselves, and how these relate to (in)equality of take-up experienced by certain groups of claimants.
The novelty of the project particularly lies in its empirical contribution: it asks who remains at the margins of European citizenship by exploring the daily practice administering of social rights to subsistence benefits in German jobcentres. Little is known about these administrative influences on non-take-up, even though such potential inequalities in claimants' ability to realise their entitlements to subsistence benefits are not only a concern from a normative point of view, but also potentially affect the poverty incidence of an increasing part of Germany's resident population.
Presenters: Nora Ratzmann, PhD Fellow, LSE


Tel Aviv is home to the highest concentration of migrants and asylum seekers in Israel. With 5,000 children under the age of 6, who denied basic children’s rights.
In order to support their families, parents with no legal status must work long and hard hours. With no social or familial support available, they have no alternative other than to place their children in what we call, 'children's warehouses.' These are filthy, dark, dank, unsanitary rooms, unfit for habitation, where babies and children spend most of their days in danger and neglecting. There are over 100 of these frameworks that we know of in Tel Aviv alone.
Unitaf developed a solution that provides a multi-disciplinary model of educators and social workers coming together with the aim of empowering the community. By establishing independent small business we provide employment and training to women from the community and quality day care solutions for the children. The caregivers and small business owners are women who fled war, famine, and authoritarian rule- seeking a better future.
Today we oversee 25 independent businesses that employ over 100 women, and provide services to 720 children and their families. On March 2015, after five reported deaths of children in pirate nurseries, the Israeli government chose Unitaf as a model for a solution that enable fulfillment of children's rights.
Social programs such as Unitaf, compensate for cultural gaps and a lack of community resources at the urban sphere, confronting us with questions about the role of the host society, and the part it plays in setting the agenda and development of displaced communities. As Israelis, who share history of asylum, it is incumbent upon us to provide the refugees in Israel basic global rights and services that every human being deserves.
Presenters: Ofira Ben Shlomo, General Director, Yehuda Tribitch memorial fund for social involvement
Alisa Olmert, President, Unitaf organization


Discourse developed around migration and welfare has tended to present a negative sentiment, either that migrants are attracted by more generous welfare systems or that they engage in excessive benefit take-up upon settlement.
Our analysis draws upon recent scholarship on transnational social protection, which provides an analytical and theoretical framework to move beyond the coupling of welfare and nation and to embrace new forms of transnational living and strategies of social protection. We do this through an exploration of migration decision-making process (often based on limited knowledge of welfare provision in the destination or unplanned), aspirations and welfare strategies developed after migration.
 We draw on qualitative data gathered through 40 interviews with four internally diverse groups in term of stage in the life-course: i) British migrants in Portugal; ii) Portuguese migrants in the UK; iii) return migrants to Portugal; and iv) non-migrants in Portugal with relatives in the UK. We foreground scale and time in our analysis in the following ways. First, we explore the scaling of formal and informal transnational strategies enacted by migrants from within the home/family to the market and the state. Second, we examine linear and non-linear representations of time to link the life-course with other temporalities to better understand the dynamic nature of welfare strategies developed across two European countries. Joint paper by: Bruno Machado; Jennifer McGarrigle; Maria Lucinda Fonseca; Alina Esteves
Presenter: Maria Lucinda Fonseca, Full Professor, IGOT - Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning, Universidade de Lisboa



Refugee integration has been treated as the main goal of the refugee policy and the expected outcome for the refugee settlement. It matters to both refugee groups and established population in the hosting countries. Currently, the surging refugee issues have caused European countries enormous pressure. It also challenges European governments’ capacity of managing major public emergencies. However, during the process, the government management deficiencies have been exposed by the mismanagement of refugee settlement and integration actions. In order to support refugee groups and make up for governments’ deficiencies mentioned above, in Europe, local families have been organized to host refugees in their residences, which has been considered as a bold step forward and an effective way to help refugees integrate into the new society by living with locals. Social work, a profession that always works with refugee group at the frontline, clearly has much to offer in refugee settlement and integration service. This study takes France as the target country, researches by means of field observation and interview with refugees, local hosting families and relevant social work practitioners, and attempts to assess the effect of family hosting on refugee integration. According to the analysis of integration influences from family hosting, combined with the local social work practice, this study also comes up with suggestions for the future social work practice on improving refugee settlement and integration in hosting society, especially in Europe.
Presenter: Guanyu Ran, ADVANCES Program Candidate, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense

 

Workshop 4.2

Reconstructing ways of belonging: Cross-country experiences of multiethnic and multiracial people

Workshop given on Wednesday - round 1 (workshop 3.2) and 2 (workshop 4.2)


While the intermarriage between different ethnic groups and races has been widely studies in the literature, little is known about the experiences of belonging and socialization of the children of intermarried couples. Do they see themselves as members of the majority group - if that is part of their background - the minority group or a different group of their own? And how are they perceived by others? How do they cope with situations of 'mismatch' between their identity and the way they are seen by others? Finally, with whom do they socialize and partner? This workshop gathers researchers who address these questions when looking at the social, cultural, educational, economic or civic participation of multiethnic and multiracial people in different countries and from a qualitative and quantitative perspective.

Organizer:
Nahikari Irastorza, Researcher, Malmö University

Presenters:
Nahikari Irastorza, Researcher, Malmö University
Sayaka Osanami Törngren, Researcher, Malmö University
Dan Rodríguez-García, Associate Professor, Autonomous University of Barcelona

 

Workshop 4.4 Labor market participation

Workshop given on Tuesday - round 2  (workshop 2.4) + Wednesday - round 1 (workshop 3.4) and 2 (workshop 4.4)

Focus: Temporary migrants and other migrant groups' vulnerability in the labour market


International research shows that migrants most vulnerable to exploitative practices are those who do not speak the host language, are from low income source countries, are working in low skilled jobs, and are on temporary work visas. New Zealand is increasingly reliant on temporary migrant workers to meet labour and skills shortages and in 2015/16 nearly 200,000 migrants were granted a temporary visa allowing them to work in New Zealand. In addition, around 90,000 international students, most with work rights, were approved to study in New Zealand. The top source countries for both workers and students included India and China.
Attempting to determine the nature and extent of exploitative practices of the temporary migrant worker population is very complex due to the hidden nature of the activity and the vulnerability of workers. This paper presents research which gathered information through a number of methods, including surveys, administrative data and key informant interviews to present a picture of exploitative practices impacting on temporary foreign workers in two New Zealand industries (construction and hospitality).
In response to issues of exploitation, New Zealand's Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment has developed a Ministry-wide approach to combating exploitation of migrant workers. This includes maintaining a well-functioning immigration system; ensuring that migrant workers and employers understand and act on their rights and obligations; holding exploitative employers to account; and building partnerships with NGOs' who are able to support exploited workers.
Presenter: Wendy Searle, Senior Research Analyst, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment


De skilling the hiring of over qualified individual is a common practice when there are a high number of candidates for a job opening. It occurs most frequently when those jobs are for lower-skilled work within migrant receiving countries. While differential skill recognition for applicants from the Global North and from the Global South is well known, there is less recognition of how and why applicants from differing regions of the Global South are unequally de-skilled. Drawing from research carried out with low-wage migrants working in the Arab Gulf, this study found that racialized hiring practices equalized the labor market, resulting in similar job and earning potential for applicants holding drastically different educational qualifications. This paper looks at the practice of deskilling, examining who is de-skilled, why they are de-skilled, and the impact of de-skilling in the context of the Arab Gulf. It draws from in-depth interviews carried out during a nine-month ethnographic study (2015-2016) on the emotional and psychological well-being of low-wage migrant workers. The sample includes a deliberately selected group of forty-four individuals from the Global South working in the Arab Gulf. The sample reflects diversity in nationality, occupation, and gender, and includes only those earning in the lowest wage bracket of less than Dh1500 (US$410) per month.
Presenter: Lisa Reber, Doctoral candidate, Arizona State University


Leave home happily and return home safely! is a traffic slogan; but it also expresses the basic hope of migrant workers working abroad. There are two recruitment forms for foreign fishermen employment in Taiwan; one is inshore hiring in accordance with the Employment Services Act while the other one is offshore hiring; meaning that the foreign crew shall be hired onto and dismissed from fishing vessels in foreign ports. The fishermen who opt to use the offshore hiring system are excluded from any fundamental legal protection while working conditions on board are based on labour contract. Factors behind the racing-to-the-bottom fishing business model are as the following;1.The hierarchical operations using migrant fishermen as the main labour force and nationality based wage frequently induce class conflict and violence on board; 2.The high cost of coming to Taiwan may subject them to become debt- bonded slave labourers; 3. False reporting of catch records, illegal catching, and unregulation of IUU fishing (illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing) conspires with unfair working conditions; 4. Non-skilled migrant fishermen lack occupational safety and health facilities, standard operating procedures and educational training leading to falling overboard or missing; 5. Forced labor and maritime violence to seek profit maximisation or cost savings. Recommendations are listed as follows;
1. Taiwan is a major power of distant water fishing, and the government shall not ignore migrant workers' fundamental right to life being unprotected in the territory of Taiwan. International, regional and bilateral cooperation should go beyond political boundary and put social sustainability as the core. The Executive Yuan (the Cabinet) should provide a concrete response to the implementation measures of relevant labour laws and regulations for offshore hired migrant fishermen, such as augmenting a labour chapter for fishing workers with referring to the ILO Convention Work in Fishing, C188, in the Labor Standards Act, to ensure the rights and interests of local and migrant fishermen. 2. How to transform the fishing supply chain into value chain will rely on multi-stakeholders keeping dialogue and making fishing workers organized and voice heard.
Presenter: Lichuan Liuhuang, Assistant Professor, National Chung Cheng University, Department of Labour Relations


Abstract missing of paper theme Economics of Citizenship Ascension
Presenter: Don DeVoretz, Professor Emeritus, Simon Fraser University

 

Workshop 4.5

Volunteering and Labour Market Integration of Newcomers: Insights from Italy, Germany and Australia


Offering orientation and training to both, volunteers and staff, is crucial to ensure that all parties are prepared to do their work and to encourage common understanding of engagement (Volunteer Canada, 2016). This statement clearly shows that providing general and specific information related to the individual role of volunteers is important to organizations assisting newcomers, as well as to the volunteers themselves. The need of a coherent strategy and coordination across government levels and between actors has become even more evident in the aftermath of 2015 when plenty of new private and public initiatives have arisen at the local, regional and national levels. Moreover, the training of volunteers often follows a 'problem solving' logic at the micro-level, instead of a more holistic approach encompassing social, cultural and legal aspects. The workshop aims at bringing together practitioners and researches to foster synergistic interactions and cross-disciplinary collaborations between different actors engaged in labour market integration processes of newcomers. The presenters will focus, in particular, on the needs of volunteers engaged in offering non-institutionalized forms of integration support to newcomers. They will open the workshop by introducing the topic with a short presentation of a "best practice” example of the experience of bottom-up volunteering that started in Como, Italy, in summer 2016 (ISMU; Italy). Then, the IQ (Integration through Qualification) project 'Orientation and Training for volunteers engaged in helping newcomers to enter the labour market' in Germany will be presented. After this first part, the participants will form small groups and will be encouraged to brainstorm, to write down ideas and to prototype training proposals. The presenters will close the workshop by collecting, selecting and categorizing the different results and show them to the whole group. Prototyping in teams has the benefit that participants working in the fields of research,
 politics and practice in different countries can bring together specific expertise and merge them to innovative results. The key point of the workshop will be to open an expert debate on volunteerism with regard to assisting newcomers to enter labour markets and the role of governments, (semi-)public institutions and NGOs in supporting this form of active citizenship.

Cecilia Lindenberg, Fondazione ISMU, Milano, Italy
Nathalie Schönberger, Tür an Tür Integrationsprojekte gGmbH Augsburg, IQ-Network Germany

Organizer: Nathalie Schönberger, Project - Coordinator, IQ Network Germany

Presenters:
Nathalie Schönberger, Project - Coordinator, IQ Network Germany
Cecilia Lindenberg, researcher, Fondazione ISMU
(To Be continued)

Workshop 4.6

Quality development and standards for transnational integration into the vocational training market


How can the complete process of vocational training be organised across national borders? What conditions have to be met, how does one start such an endeavour, how and when does it begin and where does it end?
This workshop is aimed at conference participants interested in implementing vocational training programmes for European young people and in possibilities for reducing shortages of skilled workers and youth unemployment in Europe.
During the workshop the development and lessons learned from the German pilot program 'MobiPro-EU' will be shared and the possibilities for transnational transfer of such processes and methods discussed. The presented insights are based on the experiences of projects implemented in the context of the German government’s special programme for the 'Promotion of vocational mobility of young people from Europe interested in vocational training (MobiPro-EU)'. All of these projects focus on supporting European young people in the process of completing their vocational training within the German dual vocational training system.
The workshop will be guided by the project implementation phases: we will address basic requirements for realising such a project (finding partners such as language schools, vocational colleges, companies, socio-pedagogical institutions; finding and matching participants with companies). This will be followed by looking at the process of integrating participants into the vocational training programme with attention paid to language courses in the country of origin, language tests, prevocational traineeships as well as integration at the workplace, vocational college and beyond.
The discussion and exchange with the workshop participants will focus on the opportunities and limits to the transferability of the lessons learned from the MobiPro-EU programme to other European countries.
The workshop will be facilitated by Minor - Projektkontor für Bildung und Forschung in collaboration with BBQ Berufliche Bildung Baden-Württemberg and the Embassy of Spain in Germany - all active participants in MobiPro-EU.


Organizer:
Inga Kappel, project coordinator, Minor - Projektkontor für Bildung und Forschung
Presenters:
Karin Nagel, regional coordinator, BBQ Berufliche Bildung gGmbH
Inga Kappel, project coordinator, Minor - Projektkontor für Bildung und Forschung

 

Workshop 4.7

The Settlement Response to Diverse Gender Identities


As Canada is one of the few countries that acceptsrefugee claims on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, and wasone of the first Nations to enshrine LGBT rights into our legislation, it isour responsibility to ensure that our process is responsive to the livedexperience of sexual minority refuges. Previously, refugee cases involvingsexual minorities were classified under the general guidelines of 'vulnerablepersons'. As of May 2017, theImmigration and Refugee Board of Canada announced new guidelines on proceedingsinvolving Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Expression (SOGIE). The goal of the new guidelines: 'establishesguiding principles for decision-makers in adjudicating cases involving SOGIE' (Government of Canada). The guidelinescome out of a long history of decision makers being influenced by problematicstereotypes specific to Western identity labels. It has been our experience that there areproblematic assumptions and beliefs around LGBT newcomers, and how people froma diverse range of backgrounds reflect on their own cultural and religiousbeliefs. There has been some notable research around Intersectionality Theoryas it relates to multiple categories of oppression (Crenshaw, 1991), andspecifically how it addresses the intersection of gender, class, race,ethnicity, ability, age, citizenship stats, etc. (Hulko, 2009, Massaquoi, 2011,Meyer-Cook, 2008). Although the CanadianGovernment has made the move to prioritize gender identity within Settlement,local Service Providers need to examine their culture and practice to ensurethat their staff are aware and sensitive towards the settlement needs of thisparticular population. In this workshopwe will share the process some agencies have undertaken to ensure the relevancerequired to provide a safe space for the intersecting identities of LGBTimmigrants and refugees.


Organizer:
Amanda Koyama, Manager - Family and Children's Services, Calgary Catholic Immigration Society (CCIS)

Presenters:
Fariborz Birjandian, CEO, Calgary Catholic Immigration Society (CCIS)
Amanda Koyama, Manager - Family and Children's Services, Calgary Catholic Immigration Society (CCIS)
Sara Özogul, PhD Candidate, University of Amsterdam
Andrea Vonkeman, Head of UNHCR The Netherlands

 

Workshop 4.9

LOST IN BOOKS - creative community hubs to promote belonging, maintain mother tongue,


and improve access to services


This workshop will offer an introduction to LOST IN BOOKS, a multi-lingual children's bookshop, women's haven, and literary studio in Sydney, Australia. LOST IN BOOKS is a scaleable model for creative community hubs that use literature, creativity, storytelling and hospitality to promote belonging and social interaction; connection to specialised services; employment; friendship; and the acquisition of English, while also celebrating diversity, mother languages and multilingualism. It caters to newly arrived community members as well as longer established residents. Fuelled by a creative program with writers, illustrators, musicians, textiles artists, and creative technologists, LOST IN BOOKS will produce children's stories, songs, and artistic products that reflect and celebrate the diversity of the community, the sale of which supports continued operations and provides income opportunities for community members.
We will explain our model and report on our impacts to date, and seek to provoke discussion on how to improve and share the model.
See http://www.lostinbooks.com.au/ and https://vimeo.com/169478866.


Organizer:
Jane Stratton, Creative Director, Think+DO Tank Foundation

Presenters:
Jane Stratton, LOST IN BOOKS, Think+DO TankFoundation
Olivia Nguy, Western Sydney Migrant Resource Centre
Samer Alkadri, Pages Bookstore Cafe

 

Workshop 4.10

Urban refugees and the role of ‘Community Centers’ as a mechanism of integration and cohesion


In recent years, Turkey has emerged as the world’s top refugee hosting country, which includes close to 3 million Syrians. As the refugee producing conflict situations in the region have become protracted, the Turkish government has been pressed to look beyond the emergency needs of refugees, who have largely been conceived as temporary guests, and to develop longer-term models for integration. The refugee influx to Turkey is primarily an urban phenomenon. While there are 25 camps within ten provinces in Turkey hosting refugees, over 85% of the refugee population live outside camps as self-settled urban refugees living alongside host communities. National and international civil society organizations (I/NGOs) in Turkey have played a significant role in reaching out to urban refugee populations. In recent years in particular, they have started establishing 'Community Centers' in urban districts hosting high numbers of refugees, being seen as a popular mechanism for fostering integration by serving multiple goals at once, including provision of aid, facilitating access to public services and enhancing local cohesion between refugee and host communities. By looking at the example of Turkey, this panel aims to discuss the idea and practice of 'Community Centers' as a mechanism of integration and cohesion. The panel will bring together presenters representing different vantage points such as public institutional, civil society and academia. The panel is aimed at both introducing the audience with the background of these centers in Turkey, in terms of locations, services and populations served, funding sources, monitoring mechanisms and the like, as well as initiating a more global discussion on effective strategies for fostering integration and cohesion at the local level.

Organizer:
Kirsten Biehl, Fellow, Mercator/IPC Fellow

Presenters:
Kristen Sarah Biehl, Stiftung Mercator/Istanbul Policy Center 2016-17 Research Fellow 
Miresi Busana, Education Advisor, GIZ Turkey (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale ZusammenArbeit GMBH)
Önder Yalçın, Head of Migration Office, Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality

 

Workshop 4.12

High-skilled migration


In 2016, China speeds up attracting global talents by streamlining the work permit process and launching the new 'green card' initiatives whereas the US is restricting immigration under the new administration since 2017. While abundant studies have been done to examine the immigration policies and experiences of immigrants at the traditional immigration-receiving countries such as US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, there exists a paucity of research to analyze the migratory flows from relatively developed countries to developing countries, and the immigration policies of traditional immigration-sending countries to attract global talents.
This study aims to bridge the research gap and use China as a case study to analyze how developing countries reposition themselves in the race for global talent with their own demographic transitions and economic development. Specifically, the study aims to address the following questions: 1) What are the motivating factors for global talents to migrate to China? 2) How would they construct their own identity in the migration experiences? 3) How do the recent immigration policies in China influence their migration experiences and future migration plans? Gathering primary data from participant observation and in-depth interviews and secondary data from government reports, this study will integrate the analysis of the state- and local-level policies into the examination of the everyday migration experiences. The research findings will contribute to the academic discourses on the shifting immigration landscapes globally and diversify the theoretical perspectives on immigration policies. The study will also have policy implications for attracting and retaining foreign expats for the development of the emerging economies.
Presenter: Yining Tan, Ph.D. Student and Research Associate, Arizona State University


Working title: Mobility and integration: Migration infrastructure and Chinese students’ migration to Finland and Germany
Presentor: Hanwei Li University of Tampere

Lately there has been considerable interest in understanding the role of migration infrastructure and/or migration industry plays facilitating migrants’ mobility. However, current literature has focused mainly on the commercial migration infrastructure, while less research has been done on the non-commercial infrastructures. Meanwhile, whether and how the migration infrastructure/industry still actively involved in the settling down and integration processes after the migrants are moved is still largely unknown. This article aims to fill in this gap through examining the Chinese students’ migration experiences to two non-Anglophone EU countries: Finland and Germany. The data were collected through semi-structured interview with 30 Chinese students in Finland and 29 Chinese students in Germany. The research mainly focuses on how Chinese student mobility is more than ever intensively mediated by various commercial and non-commercial institutional infrastructures such as HEIs international department, study abroad agencies, state sponsored international organizations (such as CIMO in a Finnish context and DAAD in a German context), etc. The findings reveal that different types of institutional migration infrastructures complement and compete with each other to facilitate and channel international student mobility, which explains the increasing mobility of Chinese students to non-Anglophone EU countries. Moreover, the mechanism through which they affect migration goes beyond migration decision-making and the choice of migration destination: it also facilitates mobility, and promotes the Chinese students’ integration in host societies. The commercial and non-commercial infrastructures play a different role in Chinese students’ integration processes: the commercial ones contribute more to the students’ mobility, initial settling down, and economic integration; while the non-commercial ones are engaged in different phases of student migration and are crucial for their academic and social integration. Not only are Chinese students relying more and more on migration infrastructure in their study abroad, a wide range of actors in migration industries also try to regulate and/or profit from student migration. 
Drawing on this evidence, this article’s primary contribution is to establish how migration infrastructure can be productive for understanding the shifting logic of institutional migration infrastructure’s involvement in the whole process of student migration, and its implication for broader societal transformation. It demonstrates that there is a need to think about the intersections between migration infrastructures, HEIs, and international student mobility. The article concludes by delineating the emerging features and implications of migration infrastructure development.

 

The Rise of ‘Millionaire Migration’: citizenship, migration industry and state in global investment migration

Hanwei Li, University of Tampere
Luuk van der Baaren, Université de Liège

Almost unnoticed, the number of States that have rolled out a red carpet for wealthy immigrants has proliferated over the past years. More and more states introduced attractive investment migration policies and commercialized part of their migration services to investment migration intermediaries (IMIs). Previous literature has examined the role that migration industry played in the movement of less advantageous migrants, such as labour migrant recruiters or refugee smugglers. It raises the question of how the migration industry that facilitated a more advantageous (elite) group migrant, rich migrants, can be understood. This article aims to demonstrate how the concept of the migration industry can guide us to better understand the global movements of the rich migrants from organization (meso-) and state (macro-) point of view. Drawing on interviews with investment migration agents and content analysis of legislation and policy documents related to investment migration, this article examines how the IMIs operate and what kind of the processes they engage in facilitating, channelling, and integrating rich migrants’ nobilities. Next to that, we examine the role of the State in investment migration. We concentrate on the policy efforts that have been made to facilitate or constrain the development of the investment migration and IMIs. We argue that investment migration receiving countries often have governmental institutions collaborate intensively with IMIs to optimize the outcome of their investment migration programs. However, the investment migration sending countries have been regulating and even preventing the outflow of rich migrants. The rise of the investment migration industry has far-reaching implications, as it facilitates investor migrants to become part of the globally mobile elite, thus reproducing and reinforcing inequality both locally and transnationally. The rise of global investment migration has far-reaching implications, as it facilitates a scenario in which flourishing investment intermediaries are offering services exclusively to rich people to become part of the globally mobile elite, sending countries are witnessing not only a potential brain drain but also capital exodus, and receiving countries are competing to change their legal framework to accommodate a more flexible and instrumental citizenship regime.


There have been few studies so far which consider immigrants' home societies' socio-economic conditions effects on immigration and particularly how sending countries policies influence their decision to return migration. Also, the main body of migration scholarship has paid less attention to both push and pull factors of migration and return migration, particularly in sending countries. Accordingly, there are two central contributions of this study to fill this gap. It firstly and mainly shows how the sending society’s return policy can function as pull factors for migrants to return to their home country. In this line, Iran as a very interesting case is investigated which is also an extremely understudied case, particularly by migration scholars. In fact, Iran, as a highly skilled migrant sending country, has recently employed a state-assisted return program (SARP) with the collaboration of private sector to encourage highly skilled Iranians to return home. Based on the highly skilled returnees' statists during implementing this policy, the public-private partnership (PPP) model has been very successful so far in Iran. In this regard, it could have policy lessons applicable to other sending countries. The second contribution is about how push and push factors of immigration and also being and belonging to home/host society is experienced by Iranian highly skilled immigrants living abroad using an online survey. Specifically, it describes the reasons for why Iranians migrate, their expectations for living outside of Iran, settlement experiences and their visions to return to Iran. It tries particularly to investigate Iran's new return policy effects on highly skilled Iranians' decision to go back home. Keywords: Pull/Push Factors, Return Migration, Iranian Highly Skilled Migrants, State-Assisted Return Programs (SARP), Public-Private Partnership
Presenter: BahramSalavati, Post-doc research flew, Sharif Technology University, Iran


OECD countries compete to attract and retain international students as skilled migrants. By definition former international students are of prime workforce age, face no regulatory barriers, and have self-funded to meet domestic employer demand. Within the global 'race for talent' they have emerged as a priority human capital resource. This chapter examines the study-migration pathways which have evolved in the past decade, within skilled migration policy frameworks. Three case studies are provided, assessing select challenges in the context of national debate. The first examines the UK's attempt to reduce net migration flows, and the impact of this on student migration. The second explores the retention of international doctoral students in the US, amid concern for labour market substitution rather than complementarity. The third defines the extent to which Australian employers value former international students compared to domestic graduates, including the impact of demand and demographic variables on early employment outcomes.
Presenter: Lesleyanne Hawthorne, Professor - International Workforce, University of Melbourne

 

Workshop 4.13

Symposium: Business as Usual? Labor Market Integration of Immigrants in Europe

Workshop given on Tuesday - round 1(workshop 1.13) and 2 (workshop 2.13) + Wednesday round 1(workshop 3.13) and 2 (workshop 4.13) + Thursday round 1 (workshop 5.13) and 2 (workshop 6.13)

Panel 2, Wednesday September 20: “Labor Market Integration in Europe: Good Practice”

Moderation: Liam Patuzzi

Session 2: “Examples of Good Practice in Labor Market Integration”

The second session discusses concrete examples of good practices in the three countries at hand, which, ideally, reflect the general principles discussed in the first session. A special focus lies on those practices that attempt to anticipate the effects of the changing times ahead within labour market integration, especially in terms of new labour market migration flows within Europe.

Confirmed Speakers:

  • Good Practice Finland: Shania Shin, Chamber of Commerce Helsinki
  • Good Practice Germany: Julia Lubjuhn, Web Portal Recognition in Germany
  • Good Practice Norway: Ane Lillehammer, NOKUT
A program offered by the International Metropolis Project, the City of The Hague, and the Network “Integration through Qualification” (IQ) from Germany. The symposium is organized on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thurday, Round 1 and 2 (you can select one or more days), for more information see:
www.metropolisthehague.org/programme/symposium2.php

 

Workshop 4.14

Symposium: Turkey at the Crossroads of Migration: Reappraising Traditional Discussions 

Workshop given on Tuesday - round 1(workshop 1.14) and 2 (workshop 2.14) + Wednesday round 1(workshop 3.14) and 2 (workshop 4.14) + Thursday round 1 (workshop 5.14) and 2 (workshop 6.14)


A program offered by the International Metropolis Project, the City of The Hague, and MiReKoc at Koç University in Istanbul. The symposium is organized on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Round 1 and 2 (you can select one or more days), for more information see:
www.metropolisthehague.org/programme/symposium.php

 

Workshop 4.15

Empowerment and political participation


Successful integration of immigrants and refugees requires collaboration among institutions (NGOs, government, churches, and other entities). Successful integration also requires collaboration between these institutions and the immigrant and refugee communities they seek to serve, as well as collaborative efforts with other non-institutional groups, such as volunteers.
This paper builds upon two sources:

  1. A survey of 459 immigrants and refugees, conducted in 2015 in a region of the United States in which more than 100,000 immigrants and refugees (primarily Hmong, Karen, Somali, Liberian, and Latino) have settled during the past two decades.
  2. A meta-analysis of the research literature on collaboration, which identified factors which influence the likelihood of collaborative success.
We address three topics:
  1. What do immigrants and refugees consider necessary for effective collaboration with institutions in the region in which they settle? Survey respondents shared their perspectives on the most important steps that institutions and public officials need to take in order to promote optimal education, employment, health, mental health, financial management, transportation, housing, and safety for newcomers to the region.
  2. What does the scientific literature on collaboration suggest will foster the success of collaboration to achieve successful integration of immigrants and refugees? Research points to the necessity of a shared vision for success, mutual understanding and trust (within and across communities and institutions), and established formal and informal channels of communication. Techniques for developing these are described.
  3. What are the pros and cons of an innovative data-gathering approach - respondent driven sampling - for providing credible information that will support collaborative efforts to promote integration,? This technique, tested in the survey, requires partnership between researchers and immigrant/refugee groups. It overcomes some of the shortcomings of classic research methods, but has strengths and weaknesses which we document.
Presenter: Paul Mattessich, Executive Director,Wilder Research


Unique in Dutch history, a party headed by three immigrants, and with a clear diversity agenda has entered the Dutch parliament with three seats after the national elections of March 2017. DENK is led by two Turkish MP's who left PvdA and a Moroccan candidate who was the director of the Moroccan National Advisory Organ SMN. In the run-up to the elections, the party campaigned both on national TV and on the streets in immigrant neighbourhoods. It also used Turkish and Moroccan networks, and was active on social media, particularly Facebook.
In this paper we pose the question: why have some electoral districts such high percentages of DENK voters? Is the success of DENK due to ethnic voting patterns in which Turks have voted for a Turkish candidate and Moroccans for a Moroccan candidate? Or are socio-economic reasons, segregation or other neighbourhood reasons more prominent? Why did a similar success not occur for the anti-racist party ran by Silvana Simons among Surinamese voters?
Presenter: Anja van Heelsum, assistant professor, University of Amsterdam, Political Science

 

Workshop 4.16

Integration ‘Trajectories”


The gradual abatement of the 'migration crisis' and the consequential migratory pressure on the EU's external borders, alongside the recognition of the need for wider EU reforms, has created a new impetus within recent years for the fundamental reform of EU asylum and migration policy. Such new impetus is evident in the recent creation of a European Border and Coast Guard, the mooted reform of the European Asylum Support Office into an EU Asylum Agency and, internally, an increasing importance being placed upon solidarity and cooperation between Member States.

This paper will argue that these two factors, in combination, have created a space in which the EU is able to transition from its previously reactive, security-oriented, migration and asylum policy to a proactive stance which will allow the EU to move closer to its aim of creating an effective Common European Asylum System. By examining policy developments over the last ten years, in light of internal and external events such as conflicts in the Middle East and the rise of populism, this paper will demonstrate how the EU has not only increasingly relied on novel political and legal measures to allow for the effective management of migration at the current time, but measures with long-term utility as well. It will further be argued that the long-term success of such measures will ultimately be dependent upon a re-invigoration of EU fundamental principles such as solidarity and cooperation in good faith.
Presenter: bejamin Hulme, Resaercher, University of Warwick


The sharp rise in the number of migrants and refugees arriving in Europe has brought their social integration to the forefront of policymakers' attention. This interest is reflected in numerous recent reports and publications produced by international organisations (Eurostat, OECD, MPI, ILO, UNHCR). There is strong empirical evidence that the initial channel of entry defines the integration path of migrants in European countries (Bloch, 2008, 2013). Research has also highlighted that work and engagement with the labour market influences migration and acculturation experiences (Alberti, 2014; Andrzejewska and Rye, 2012); and, significantly, that the employment rate of refugees is significantly lower than for other migrant categories (Bloch, 2008, 2013). However, most studies consider refugees' experiences without focusing on the entry channel and hence ignore an important dimension of their labour market integration. Moreover, access to the labour market of women refugee, regardless of channel of entry, has not received special attention by policy makers and legislators. According to OECD/EU indicators (2015) women refugees have significantly worse labour market outcomes and their labour market integration is slower than that of male migrants.
The present paper, which is based on an ongoing university funded research project, seeks to understand how current UK policy and legislation shape the way 'newly resettled' and 'newly recognised' refugees, including women refugee, integrate into the labour market, examining, in particular, the barriers that they face. The focus is mainly on labour-market integration measures, including success in finding employment; however, other integration criteria such as securing accommodation and, where appropriate, help with English language skills are also considered in the study. The paper aims at critically reviewing the main integration policies in relation to labour-market access for both 'types' of newly recognised refugees, offering interesting insights into the UK integration discourse.

Academic References:
Alberti, G. (2014). Mobility strategies, 'mobility differentials' and 'transnational exit': the experiences of precarious migrants in London's hospitality jobs. Work, Employment & Society, 28(6), 865-881.

Andrzejewska, J., & Rye, J. F. (2012). Lost in transnational space? Migrant farm workers in rural districts. Mobilities, 7(2), 247-268.

Bloch, A. (2008). Refugees in the UK labour market: The conflict between economic integration and policy-led labour market restriction. Journal of Social Policy, 37(1), 21-36.

Bloch, A. (2013). The labour market experiences and strategies of young undocumented migrants. Work, Employment & Society, 27(2), 272-287.

Reports and Studies:
European Parliament, (2016) Labour Market Integration of Refugees: Strategies and good practices  IP/A/EMPL/2016-08

EUROSTAT (2011) 'Indicators of immigrant integration. A pilot study.' Methodologies and Working papers Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; OECD ' EU (2014) Matching Economic Migration with Labour Market Needs. OECD Publishing, Paris.DOI:

MPI-ILO (2014) Aiming Higher: Policies to Get Immigrants into Middle-Skilled Work in Europe, Migration Policy Institute.

OECD (2006) From immigration to integration: Local solutions to a global challenge. Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED), OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI

OECD (2007) Jobs for immigrants (Vol. 1): Labour-market integration in Australia, Denmark, Germany and Sweden. OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/9789264033603-en.

OECD (2008) Jobs for immigrants (Vol. 2): Labour-market integration in Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Portugal. OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/9789264055605-en

OECD (2012a) Jobs for immigrants. (Vol. 3): Labour-market integration in Austria, Norway and Switzerland. OECD Publishing, Paris. ISBN number:9789264167520.

OECD (2012b) Settling In: OECD Indicators of immigrant integration 2012. OECD Publishing.

OECD (2014a) Jobs for immigrants (Vol. 4): Labour-market integration in Italy. OECD Publishing. Paris. DOI:10.1787/9789264214712-en.

OECD (2014b) International Migration Outlook 2014. OECD Publishing. Paris. DOI: 10.1787/migr-outlook-2014-en.

OECD (2015) 'Is this humanitarian migration crisis different?' Migration Policy Debates, No, 7, OECD Publishing.Paris

OECD (2016) Making Integration Work: Refugees and others in need of protection. OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI

Refugee Women's Strategy Group, The Struggle to Contribute 2011

UNHCR (2013a) A new beginning: Refugee integration in Europe. Outcome of an EU funded project on Refugee

Integration Capacity and Evaluation (RICE). United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

UNHCR (2013b) Refugee integration and the use of indicators: Evidence from Central Europe. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

UNHCR (2013c) The labour-market integration of resettled Refugees. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Policy Development and Evaluation Service.
Presenter: Sonia Morano-Foadi, Researcher, Oxford Brookes University, School of Law and Research


In a contemporary climate of unprecedented human mobility in which new immigrants increasingly maintain literal and metaphorical transnational linkages between their country of origin and migration, what might community-based integration initiatives look like? Using this broad question, this presentation argues that promoting civic engagement is an important integration activity for new immigrants, however, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how this activity can incorporate new immigrants' transnational and pre-migration civic engagement experiences. To illustrate this, our presentation will discuss the development and implementation of a community-based project by women community leaders in one Toronto neighbourhood that aimed to motivate new immigrants to participate in a Canadian government public consultation about healthy food choices. A key consideration for this initiative was to promote civic engagement and volunteering in new immigrants by learning about their pre-migration civic identities. Conversations emerging during the initiative indicated that the participants' desire and motivation to engage in meaningful civic engagement post-migration was predicated on their pre-migration memories of active citizenship in their home countries. Through our discussion, we explore several questions including the importance of civic engagement in new immigrants' integration, the role of community leaders as important stakeholders to facilitate immigrant integration, and the barriers that new immigrants may face in engaging in meaningful civic engagement including volunteering, undertaking civic actions and participating in democratic activities.
Presenter: M.Anum Syed and Nilofar Noor, Researchers,University of Toronto.


The contemporary phase of globalization and global integration has opened up new international trajectories of migration (both for employment and education) to vibrant urban growth centers in Delhi. A relatively recent phenomenon, is the growing inflow of migrants from different parts of the African continent. In the city, they become a part of and contribute to the productive economy of the country, aiding the process of its growth and accumulation. However, they encounter continuous hostility and are subject to a process of 'othering' by the local residents in the social sphere.
Over the last two years, the media has prominently documented and commented on a series of racist attacks on the African communities. The state agencies have mostly trivialised these incidents as isolated local law and order problems and steadfastly denied any alleged racial overtures. Amnesty International, India and African nations have expressed grave concern over the recurrent and alarming nature of these crimes.
A close reading of the fragmented information available raises a number of pressing questions on urban citizenship, inclusion and social justice. This study proposes to investigate the various tensions inherent in the economic position and social experience of these migrants. It challenges the state's lack of recognition of their rights and entitlements in the struggle for public space and urban citizenship and reflects on the concomitant production and transformation of the urban space by the migrant communities. This research is especially topical and pertinent given that many parts of the developed world are currently witnessing a surge in increasing anti-immigrant bias with ensuing constraints on their mobility, by reflecting on the chances of integration of these migrant communities in what is claimed to a global and plural city (Delhi) and whether India can be a new destination for some of this swelling stream of migrants.
Presenter: Somjita Laha, Researcher, Institute for Human Development.

 

Workshop 4.17

Asylum-Seeker Accommodation in Europe: Considering Scales of Policy and Practice

Workshop given on Wednesday round 2(workshop 4.17) + Thursday round 2 (workshop 6.15)


Since the Autumn of 2015, Europe has received over one million asylum-seekers from a variety of origins. Subsequently, receiving societies and states have engaged in numerous tasks of asylum-seeker accommodation (providing housing and sustenance, financial support, healthcare, legal services, and language training). The large-scale and relatively rapid creation of institutional arrangements for substantial numbers of asylum-seekers has necessarily entailed complex organizational measures, requiring a range of actors, perspectives, strategies, and resources at various levels and scales.
While broad decisions regarding asylum-seeker accommodation have been made on European and national levels, it has been on the local level that asylum-seeker accommodation has been implemented and engaged. Accommodation measures and practices have been developed and undertaken by, among others, municipal departments, churches, mosques and welfare organizations, schools and universities, sports clubs and volunteer groups.
Increasingly, social scientists have observed local institutional dynamics, public reactions and experiences of asylum-seekers. The specificity of contexts is clear: in order to understand and assess the accommodation of asylum-seekers, there is much to take into account about the local socio-cultural, historical, demographic and political contexts in which is occurs. How, while bearing in mind local contexts of asylum-seeker accommodation, can we also gain insights into comparative and large scale processes and outcomes? In light of European and national policies, how much innovative and alternative practice has been possible in local contexts? Can lessons from local experiences be scaled-up? And how, in understanding local, national, and European scales, can we keep asylum-seekers’ own perceptions, needs and aspirations in sight?
In addition to facilitating public debate on pressing issues, the aim of the workshop will be to compile and refine a special issue of a top ranking academic journal.


Chairs:
Steven Vertovec and Jeroen Doomernik
Presenters:
Enrico del Castelo, Director, Knowledge, Mobilization and Partnerships, Research & Evaluation, Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC)
Dan Hiebert ,Professor, University of British Columbia.
Roswitha Weiler, Dutch Council for Refugees
Jock Collins, Professor, University of Technology Sydney

 

Workshop 4.18 E

Symposium: The Hague: Migration and Integration on Site

Workshop given on Tuesday - round 1(workshop 1.18e) and 2 (workshop 2.18e) + Wednesday round 1(workshop 3.18e) and 2 (workshop 4.18e)
If you want to attend this symposium you have to select round 1 and 2 in your personal program.

A Program offered by the International Metropolis Project, the City of The Hague and the research group Metropolitan Development of The Hague University of Applied Sciences.


This workshop will find place outside the conference venue at The Hague University of Applied Sciences. Buses will bring you to this venue and back to the World Forum. For more information see: 
www.metropolisthehague.org/programme/symposium3.php