Below is the complete list of workshops given on this day and time.
Please note that some workshops are following up on each other and are given on multiple days / rounds. This is mentioned in the text.
When choosing your personal program you have to fill in for each round which workshop you would like to attend, also when workshops are following up on each other.
There will be two symposia ('Business as usual?' and 'Turkey at the Crossroads of Migration') organised, that covers each day round 1 and round 2.
One symposium (The Hague: Migration and Integration on Site) is organised outside the conference venue (on Tuesday and Wednesday). If you want to attend this symposium please select round 1 and round 2. Buses will be ready to bring you to this symposium venue.
Workshop given Tuesday - round 1(workshop 1.1) and 2 (Workshop 2.1)
Why a workshop on refugee entrepreneurship
[Background - up to 150 words (to be inserted here): Provide an overview that captures the most pressing issues or concerns about the economic integration of refugees across countries. Briefly discuss the current state and level of understanding about refugee entrepreneurship, as well as the major gaps in our understanding]
This interdisciplinary workshop offers an opportunity to discuss how entrepreneurship could be promoted more strategically among refugees and others who lack acceptable job opportunities in their host country. It features interesting presentations on conceptual frameworks, flagship initiatives or best practices and actionable recommendations.
The key questions to be addressed include:
Organizer: Nadine Forster
Since its creation, the policy field in the Netherlands that aims to advance the 'integration' of migrants and Dutch citizens 'with a migrant background' is repeatedly being critiqued for failing to deliver what it promises. An intensification or adjustment of policy interventions is consistently proposed as a remedy for its own ills, which in turn is later also thought to be unsuccessful. Besides raising the question of why policies fail, this recurrent perception of failure also begs for an analyses of what other, unintended effects policy interventions may have; despite the limited results they are believed to have been having since first being created in the early 1980s, integration policies have become more politically important over time. Based on interviews with involved policy makers, archival research, observations and analysis of public documents this presentation answers the question how social processes related to migration and diversity have been rendered amenable to technic policy interventions in the Netherlands and what effects this has been having.
Policies aim to address social relations, developments and anxieties related to migration, belonging and coexistence, which are, however, very difficult to amend through policy interventions. Not only is social reality complex and difficult to steer, expertise underpinning interventions has been flawed and the organisation and implementation of the policy field has been complicated, also because of a one-sided political interest. Consequently, integration policies have since their first creation been recreating the conditions, i.e. the marginalisation of national outsiders, they aim to improve. Instead of bringing the intended results of 'bridging gaps' or making people 'participate', policies have the, far more important, instrumental effects of consolidating the social order in which established nationals are dominant and naturally belong. These interventions, moreover, disguise their own imbrication with power and depoliticise questions about the changing fabric of the nation state.
Presenter: Michiel Swinkels, Researcher, PhD candidate
Denmark, not unlike other European countries, has introduced specific integration measures for foreigners. Today, different instruments exist, such as the integration contract, the integration program, and the integration course, all of which aim to foster the integration for newly-arrived foreigners.
In this paper, I will critically analyse the use of contracts as a legal tool with an integration purpose. The integration contract is a coercive legal instrument that refugees and family reunited migrants are obliged to sign with the municipalities and which establish the duty of foreigners to attend Danish language and culture courses, to start a traineeship, or to upgrade their work skills by entering into a partnership agreement with a company. If foreigners do not comply with the conditions stated in the contract, the municipality can withdraw their social benefits and/or other legal consequences may ensue which may endanger the prospect of integration in the long run. Moreover, no empirical data has shown that the integration contract is a successful tool of integration. As such, although in theory it appears to be an effective device that can boost the integration process, the integration contract may create an unbalanced relationship between municipalities and foreigners, especially those foreigners from more vulnerable groups.
The paper investigates the role of integration policy in response to migration and cultural diversity. The paper will parse the political rationale behind the integration contract, explore its content, and evaluate its legal implications. The paper also examines the placing of national policies within the broader context of integration within the European legal framework.
Presenter: Silvia Adamo, Researcher, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen
Canada is recognized on the international stage as a welcoming and diverse country. Over the past ten years, 2.6 million newcomers have settled in communities across Canada. They come from countries around the world, speak over 100 languages, and include refugees, skilled professionals, families, children and youth, and seniors. Today, more than 20% of Canada's population are immigrants and 17% of those born in Canada are the children of at least one immigrant parent.
While these numbers speak to the welcoming nature of the country, it also only presents part of the picture. To better understand Canada's success, we need to ask: what does successful newcomer integration look like in a country as diverse as Canada?
The presentation will provide insight into the newcomer integration outcomes that have been achieved in the province of British Columbia, Canada. In particular, it will provide an overview of the key drivers to successful newcomer integration in Canada as well as best practices in service and policy. This includes innovative approaches to integration by both settlement service providers (i.e. NGOs) as well as the essential role played by local community stakeholders (including local government, leaders, employers/businesses, and residents) to be welcoming and inclusive to newcomers. Through this presentation, attendees will better understand Canada's unique and comprehensive approach to newcomer integration and how they can adopt best practices and policies for their local communities.
Presenter: Queenie Choo, Canada, Chief Executive Officer
In the mid-1990s, the number of asylum applications in the Netherlands showed a marked increase, with a total of 95,000 people applying for asylum between 1995 and 1999. The majority of this group settled in the Netherlands permanently. On the basis of two unique data sources, we assess the structural and socio-cultural integration of this group of refugees. We show longitudinal registration data of all asylum applicants who settled in the Netherlands between 1995 and 1999 (data collected between 1995 and 2012), and a survey among the largest refugee groups (SING 2009), to answer the following research questions: (1) To what extent has the integration in different domains been successful for this cohort of refugees, and how do they compare to regular migrants and native Dutch?; (2) How have these integration processes developed over time?; and (3) Which factors contributed to successful integration of this group? We assess both pre-migration and post-migration characteristics of individual refugees, and take into account the role of the asylum- and integration policy in the 1990s. On the basis of the findings across integration domains, we develop suggestions for dealing with the current inflow of refugees. In addition, we will present a sneak preview of findings from our new longitudinal research project among refugees who arrived in the Netherlands between 2014 and 2016. Differences and similarities in characteristics of asylum populations will be discussed, as well as the role of Dutch asylum policies in these different periods.
Presenter: Mieke Maliepaard, Researcher
In the last decade, the scope, frequency, and intensity of reforms to Canadian immigration, refugee, and citizenship policies has produced a system migration management, which involves a greater but concerning reliance on temporary status. Such reliance leads to abuse, exploitation, family separation, and contributes to racialized and criminalized misinformation about migrants. Moreover, these reforms have made the process of gaining access to permanent status in Canada lengthier, more complicated, and more onerous with little opportunity to appeal or review denied applications. The previous Conservative government used rationales including austerity, efficiency, and securitization to justify these expedient policy changes, which have increased the occurrence and persistence of precarity, contributing to the systemic exclusion of a growing number of non-citizens who live and work in Canada. The current liberal federal government has an ambitious roadmap outlined for the immigration, refugees and citizenship portfolio. The Ottawa Directions on Precarious Status in Canada is a policy brief commissioned by and presented to Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada. It includes recommendations put forward by twelve experts who met for a one-day workshop hosted by Carleton University and the University of Ottawa. This multidisciplinary group was selected on the basis of their scholarship and engagement with policy makers, civil society organizations, and the broader community. They found that the problem of prolonged precarious status in Canada touches upon two broad categories of persons: persons with temporary residence (temporary migrant workers and refugees and refugee claimants) and persons with no status (ascribed by the state designating their entitlement to rights and access to services). Their recommendations are divided into three broad categories: revisions, repeals, and proposed additions to current policies. Overall, they call for a systemic approach to not only reviewing temporary and precarious status in Canada, but also recommends that permanent status should be used more.
Presenter: Amrita Hari, Assistant Professor, Carleton University
Workshop given on Tuesday - Round 1(workshop 1.3) and 2 (Workshop 2.3) + Thursday - Round 2 (workshop 6.3)
This paper deals with the newcomer's everyday struggle to get ahead in Germany and The Netherlands while residing beyond the metropoles. Here, a newcomer means an acknowledged asylum seeker who lives more than 1 year and less than 4 years in a neighbourhood of a small or medium sized town. In Germany and The Netherlands, newcomer has been distributed all over the country according to certain rules. Hence, many of them have settled down in (shrinking) small and medium sized towns. There, they have to stay as long as they receive social security benefit. The main research questions are: 1) which kind of strategies do they develop to get ahead (despite they are restricted to move to another place)? and 2) which kind of opportunities or obstacles the newcomer's experience in small town communities?
A great body of literature on the newcomer's struggle to get ahead, takes the perspective of the host society. The newcomer's 'integration' in formal subsystems such as educational systems or labour markets is seen as a very constructive and important strategy. However, the everyday path of 'integration' is even more complex. In order to understand this path more in detail, the paper explores the newcomer's view on their situation in relation to the structural conditions that set a certain framework in advance and thus, shape their everyday situations and social action. The results of this study are based on the analysis of 40 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with newcomer, volunteers and governmental actors living in the area around the medium sized town Siegen (D) and in Parkstad Limburg (NL).
Presenter: Sabine Meier, Professor, University Siegen, Faculty II: Education, Architecture and Arts
Since the mid 2000's Eritrea's young have been leaving in droves, in numbers as high as 7,000 monthly. Traversing one of the deadliest migrant trails on earth, Eritreans constitute the second to third largest refugee group to enter the European Union. Based on fieldwork in Bologna, Italy, this paper explores young Eritreans' ambivalent relationship to the existing diaspora and the global politics of mobility that sustain inequalities between the first and second generation diaspora. For thirty years, the Eritrean Liberation Front and its successor the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) waged a guerilla war that culminated in a sovereign Eritrean nation in 1993, in which almost one quarter of Eritrea's total population was dispersed in exile (Matsuoka & Sorensen 2001). Moreover, the guerilla movement made the diaspora major stakeholders in the process of state-building, and has incorporated its diaspora in defining legal citizenship (Woldemikael 2011). Scholars have termed this earlier diasporan generation 'generation nationalism,' (Hepner 2015). The current wave of recent migrants has been shaped by changes in the global migration order (Van Hear 1998) towards one of deportation and securitization, and by the increasing repression and militarization of social life in territorial Eritrea. Contests over who has the right to move animate discourses around morality, ethics deservingness, and politics, creating new political subjectivities around shared experiences of rootlessness for Eritrea's young. This paper locates these emergent discourses and practices in notions of care and aid. By focusing on the relationships between the first and second generation diaspora this paper further problematizes the common-sense notions that human mobility is governed through increasing securitization. Instead, this paper contextualizes Eritreans' mobility through the particular dynamics of Eritrean state formation, the political economy of exile, and transnational kinship networks in undergirded Eritreans' capacities to claim refugee status and to organize politically.
Presenter: Fiori Berhane, PhD candidate, Brown University
Over recent years, migration researchers have become increasingly interested in examining how people in (super-)diverse environments are 'living-with-difference' (Valentine 2008). In large measure this is a response to the growing diversification of many major cities in Europe and beyond. Crucially, however, it is also an attempt to counter the concurrent phenomena of growing nationalism, populist movements, and panicked policy discourses centering on the notions of 'social cohesion' and 'integration' that are in evidence across the globe. Much of this research hones in on urban locales - from cities more broadly to neighbourhoods and concrete micro-publics such as parks, libraries, or public transport - as spaces where everyday multiculture is produced and lived and where difference is negotiated in mundane encounters with fellow city dwellers. Now spanning a large number of different geographical contexts from Europe to Oceania, this burgeoning body of work calls for a systematic review in order to take stock of current knowledge. In this presentation, I provide an analysis and synthesis of international qualitative and ethnographic studies of urban diversity published over the past ten years, from 2006 to 2016. In this analysis, I outline and compare key findings that illuminate the conditions that enable or disable urban sociability and solidarity or processes of contestation and exclusion in different geo-political contexts, and I examine the research questions and theoretical lenses that researchers have employed in order to make suggestions for shaping a research agenda.
Presenter: Jessica Terruhn, Senior Research Officer, Massey University
Finland and Russia have rich common history, and no wonder, that Russian-speaking migrants are the third largest group in Finland. We have already thoughtful research background of cultural and social interactions. However, while the role of smaller migrant groups (like Kurd and Arabs) is being actively researched, the phenomenon of belonging of Russians in Finland remains still unclear. All the more reason, political and cultural processes taken place in the Russian Federation and Ukraine have caused certain changes in different migrant groups from the former Soviet Union in Finland. In my project, I research how recent political and social changes in Russia have influenced members of Russian-speaking minority in Finland, and how migrants have responded on that. I am taking interviews among people of different social groups, like employees, students, repatriates, who have Finnish roots. Using critical discourse analysis and thematic analysis, I analyse changes of sense of belonging of my interviewees and their expectations, which, I believe, will help to understand phenomenon of multi-belonging and nationalism.
In the paper I research to what extend nationalism is represented in everyday talks and internet activity of Russian migrants in Finland.
Presenter: Evgenii Volen, PhD student, University Of Turku (Finland)
The influx of one million refugees to European Union countries in 2015 became a putative crisis in Europe. Among them, a large number of young displaced people (aged from 18-25) were, and are still going through both displacement (forced migration from one location to another) and emergency adulthood (transition from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood). A solid body of research have shown concerns to unaccompanied minors but less elaborated the issues faced by youth in transition. In the young displaced people's transition to their destinations and adulthood, they are struggling to establish a life in the host communities, especially the youth who are placed in the rural area. At this particular moment, the everyday life exhibited by young people reshape their identity which furthermore impacts their wellbeing. Therefore, the research aims to reveal the everyday life of young displaced people who were placed in rural communities and how the host communities (especially the physical environment in rural areas) impact young displaced people's wellbeing. Participatory action paradigm methodology was employed in the research in order to maximise the young people's participation and to empower displaced people to exercise their rights. Young people were asked to take photos of the significant part of their daily life by themselves and they were encouraged to interpret the meanings of the photos with researcher as well as policy makers.
This presentation will firstly demonstrate the strengths by the young displaced people through showing the photos and then discuss how can the displaced people work with multi-stakeholders collectively. If possible, one or two refugees would be encouraged to speak during the presentation. Overall, the presentation will bring out an innovative participatory approach to tackling refugee issues.
Presenter: Cathy Xi Cao Master Student, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre
This paper analyzes Indian immigrant's quest to forge a 'home' in Canada. Their emotional and psychological struggles to feel 'at home' have much to do with the biased representations of India that frequently highlight its poverty and related problems of illiteracy, superstition, gender oppression and religious conflict. There is not one imagined India but many and it is the differences that alienate and make immigrants feel that they do not belong in Canada. This heightens the immigrant's nostalgia for their cultures and lost 'homes' in India.
Memory connects the immigrant's with their past selves and defines their present being. The paper juxtaposes the home 'here' in India with the home 'there' in Canada to illustrate that although homes are made of brick and mortar yet they part of our imagination and longing to belong and be 'at home.' Those who have left their places of birth, to make homes in other parts of the world, find that the past continues to resonate in their voices, hovers over their silences, and explains how they came to be who they are and inhabit what they call their home.
Presenter: Vijay Agnew, Professor, York University, Canada
The contemporary migrational processes shift from singular journeys from one space to another to multiple, circular and returning migrations across transnational spaces. This transnational concept of multiple ties and connections across the borders leads to the phenomenon of transculturalism as a dynamic perspective of understanding cultures, developing skills and knowledge to navigate through multi-faceted spaces and interact.
Transculturalism is a new emerging model of learning that recognizes the interconnection of knowledge, attitudes, and skills into responsible and liberatory action to make a difference in the world - to create a more socially just, equitable, inclusive, and peaceful world. A world, where each person takes multiple and varied actions individually and collectively. An action informed by inquiry, framing, positionality, dialogue, and reflection, that can be the catalyst for social justice, transformation, and inclusion. Transcultural learning as perspective transformation allows individuals located at the crossroads of cultures to switch between cultures as a mode of being in the world, as a quest for inclusion while considering common values, oppositions, tensions, and power in interactions.
This presentation focuses on examining the transcultural framework and its application in educational programs that engage immigrants and mainstream in developing cultural competence and promoting paths for successful interaction and active participation in transnational environment. Implemented in the community-development program in one of the largest immigrant-serving agencies in Canada, Calgary Catholic Immigration Society, the transcultural learning model became a successful practice for fostering inclusion in the society. Including the holistic perspectives of transcultural learning is also imperative for future humankind. Ultimately, transcultural learning for sustainability is oriented toward values of peace, social justice and recognition of individuals as product and producers of transculturalism.
Presenter: Sinela Jurkova, PhD Student, University of Calgary
In 2006-2012, after decades in which very few asylum seekers entered the country, over 50,000 African asylum seekers came to Israel through its then open Southern border. Most of the newly arriving asylum seekers settled in the poor neighborhoods of South Tel Aviv.
Beginning in 2011, Israeli residents of South Tel Aviv became very vocal against the continued stay of the asylum seekers in "their" neighborhoods - arguing that due to the concentration of the latters in South Tel Aviv, the quality of life in the area has further deteriorated, and blaming the pro-refugees NGOs for caring "only about Africans." This friction between the "locals" and the "newcomers" led to demonstrations of the formers against the latters, verbal mutual accusations, and physical violence.
In my presentation, I will examine the predictability of this friction, based on data from other cities around the world, and suggest - in hindsight - how could this been avoided or mitigated. I would also delve into the special role of NGOs and social activists in these situations: Could and should have Israeli NGOs predicted this friction? Is the criticism against them, made by some Israelis, that they protect the rights and interests of one marginalized group (asylum seekers) while overlooking the rights and interests of another marginalized group (poor Israeli residents of South Tel Aviv) justified? Could a joint action - by Israeli citizens and asylum seekers residing in South Tel Aviv, against the State/ municipality, to better deal with over-crowdedness etc. in South Tel Aviv - have been possible if NGOs or other activists had tried this course of action before a rivalry between the two groups have erupted and things went out of control?
Presenter: Yuval Livnat, Academic Supervisor, Refugee Rights Program, Tel Aviv University
In my report I want to demonstrate how the absence of spatial segregation in the post-Soviet city, inherited from the Soviet period, affects the trajectories of social and economic integration of migrants and I will explain the absence of 'ethnic areas' in today's Moscow. I will show how the structure of post-Soviet urban environment differs from the European and U.S. ones, and uses interviews with guest workers from Central Asia to map out the barriers encountered today by migrants looking for housing, as well as the strategies they employ in their search for accommodation in Moscow.
Special attention I will paid to the role played by ethnic networks in the lives of migrant workers, and the ways in which these networks are configured by the urban space. Based on the results of my research, I will explain how the members of such communities maintain their ties and create their own social infrastructure in the city ('a Kyrgyz clinic', 'Uzbek' and 'Kyrgyz' cafes and restaurants). Again, such sites are not tied to a given quarter, but cater to co-ethnics from across the city. Information regarding 'where to receive medical treatment in Moscow' or 'where to celebrate a wedding' is transmitted through social networks, including pages on social networking sites creating by and for migrant (Demintseva and Peshkova 2014; Demintseva and Kashnitsky 2016).
Presenter: Ekaterina Demintseva, the head the Center for Family Policy and Quality of Life Studies at HSE, National Research University Higher School of Economics
This paper assesses the impact of different political, economic and environmental shocks on the size but also on the age and gender composition of asylum-related migration flows to Europe. To the authors best knowledge, no attempt has so far been made to understand how the nature of shocks in countries of origin affects the gender and age composition of asylum seeker flows toward Europe.
The authors analyze the effect of different types of shocks on the number, gender and age composition of first time asylum seekers originating from 154 sending countries. Among the political shocks, the authors consider: violence between combatants, violence against civilians, infringement of political rights and civil liberties, and state terror. Concerning environmental shocks, natural disasters (such as droughts, floods, epidemics, etc.) have been included.
The identification strategy exploits the different timing across the sending countries of the different types of shocks. The highly skewed distribution of the dependent variable is taken into account by using count data models. In particular, a Zero Inflated Negative Binomial model is adopted.
Preliminary results show that different shocks - such as armed conflict and epidemics - exert a weak immediate effect on asylum-related migration flows but almost no effect on the gender and age composition. However, this result is certainly affected by the fact that no time lags have been introduced so far. Indeed, the time lags depend on several variables, such as distance, and the identification of appropriate time lags is still in progress.
This research contributes to better informing national authorities in charge of receiving and providing assistance to migrants, since women and children/the elderly require different assistance than young men. To be prepared to offer the correct services, the relevant institutions have to be aware of changes in composition based on the shock in question.
Presenter: Christian Bruss, Junior Researcher, The Research Institute for the Evaluation of Public Policies of Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-IRVAPP)
The presentation is aimed to balance the increasing relevance of populist movements across Europe with a multicultural approach, through a case-by-case analysis focused on specific group needs and vulnerabilities.
The presentation will argue that the ECtHR's notion of "particularly vulnerable groups " might be fit for this purpose.
Such an approach does take the form of an asymmetrical balance between competing rights and interests, through which vulnerable groups' needs are interpreted and prioritized, without focusing only (or mainly) on their cultural identities. Group identities are seriously taken into account, but only as a one-among-others factor, and only to the extent they produce a particular group vulnerability, that is specific and harmful conditions of need, in specific situations that are under scrutiny.
That approach blurs the opposition between majority and minorities, so as to avoid (or to lessen) populist criticisms about politics of recognition. From that point of view, majorities and minorities are on the same side of the river, because many factors can produce conditions of vulnerability, and every individual can find him/herself in condition of vulnerability. No resources are subtracted to the majority for the sake of minority recognition, nor there is an opposition between insiders and outsiders: both can be vulnerable, depending on specific situations.
Such an approach can be a step towards a more substantial idea of equality: it places an additional burden on states, by asking them to provide proofs that vulnerable people's specific conditions and needs have been considered, in order to appreciate the proportionality and reasonability of their choices.
Presenter: Fabio Macioce, Faculty member - Full professor, Lumsa University - Rome
To understand the Kurdish diaspora in London requires answering two interrelated questions of Kurdish forced migration history and Kurdish cultural identity. Thus, this study, firstly examines the history of Kurdish forced migration and displacement, exploring a common historical argument which positions the Kurds as powerless victims of the First World War (WW1). To this end it looks critically at the post-WW1 era and the development of the new nation state in the Middle East namely Turkey, Iraq and Syria. This first part creates the context for explaining and gaining a better understanding of the systematic sociopolitical marginalisation which led to forced migration of the Kurds since the 1920s. Secondly, this study, evaluates the integration experiences of some members of the Kurdish diaspora in London, who have settled in this city since the1990s. Furthermore, this part attempts to describe the shifting position of the Kurds from victims in the Middle East with trends in ethnic integration and the negotiations of multiculturalism in London. This capital city has historically the promise and attraction for many migrants to becoming Londoners and this now includes Kurdish-Londoners.
Moreover, the comparison made of the positions and perspectives of second generation Kurds born in Britain in the 1990s, to the first generation, that came to Britain in the 1990s. This allows an exploration of the notion of identity and the idea of home and belonging in the light of contemporary changes and concomitant theories of diaspora and refugee studies, and, where necessary, challenge those ideas. Therefore, with the dual question of history and identity in mind this study attempts to innovate in methodology.
Presenter: Ayar Ata, researcher, London South Bank University
In major cities there are consultation possibilities for refugees. But what about the suburbs or countryside's that don't have anyone but the refugees still live in? What about their opportunities to become integrated and have a possibility for work?
For this exact reason, our job, "Talentscout for Refugees" was initiated by MigraNet (IQ Landesnetzwerk Bayern) and AGABY (Committee of Councels's of Immigrants in Bavaria) to be able to have us in places where no one else goes. AGABY has been in place for almost 25 years and covers a vast majority of area with their Counsels of Immigrants throughout Bavaria.
Presenter: Souzan Nicholson, Talentscout für Flüchtlinge, Projekt von MigraNet und AGABY e.V.
Workshop given on Tuesday - round 2 (Workshop 2.4) + Wednesday - round 1 (workshop 3.4) and 2 (workshop 4.4)
Focus: Refugees and socio-economic integration
The major problems caused by migration at the politic, socio-economic and cultural level in any country encourage migrant organizations to co-operate with development specialists in research centers. These two nexus topics (Migration-Development) bring scholars ,practitioners, decision-makers and businessmen to work together and interact with public institutions, private organizations, and civil societies, NGOs in collaboration to find adequate solutions to the flows of migrants and refugees and to duplicate shared ideas. In this orientation, the enthusiasm of the UN, IOM, OECD, international organizations, research institutes are trying to suggest to migrant associations and their role in development an approach of two trends. Firstly, the migrant's communities considered as a principle of development complement the principles of the socio-economic order as the society, the market and the State. Secondly, in the current migration-development cycle, migrants and several actors have been constituted by States and international organizations as an important agent for debate the migration issue and proposing new appropriate solutions. Scholars and professionals should be integrated for studying, analyzing and proposing models to affront the migration problem related to development. This paper reviews the topic of (migration - development) to shape a human capital and achieve the development. It analyzes the Syrian case (Migration and Refugees) which has experienced during one hundred years. The first Syrian migrants was considered as human capital formation contributed to enhancing development of all countries in (North and Latin-America, Western Europe, Australia ...) without any problems of integration. The second forced Syrian (refugees and displaced) People fled of infernal war may become a potential of development of received countries especially the European countries if these migrants will find an encouraging environment. The paper proposes practical models as a scientific contribution inspired by the reality and can be tools to apply in order to solve the Syrian migration problem.
Presenter: Mohamed Meri, Professor Emeritus, Simon Fraser University
Rather than solely objectifying refugees as a vulnerable group, paying attention to their contribution to the industrial relations is crucial in order to acknowledge refugees as active agents capable of changing their lives and structures. Syrian refugees in Turkey follow a survival strategy based on their social networks that also affects living and working conditions of local people.
The paper aims to focus on the relation between informal and formal sectors in Turkey and how such relations have affected the survival strategies of Syrian refugees. In turn, it also attempts to assess how the participation of Syrian refugees in the informal economy has changed this historical relation between formal and informal employment. The paper will initially provide a general picture of the employment of Syrian refugees in Turkey and share the observations from the fieldwork.
Findings shared in this paper are based on fieldwork carried out between August 2016 and December 2016. The main research question of the paper aims to clarify the reasons of low level of applications for the work permits despite the Turkish government's decision to grant legal work permits for Syrian refugees since January 2016. It is estimated that approximately 300,000 refugees work in the textile sector while only 13,298 were granted work permits by the end of 2016.
As the work permit is applied by the employer to employ a refugee, the research aims to understand the factors that lead to unwillingness of employers to legally employ Syrian refugees. Workshops as focus groups meetings and in-depth interviews with stakeholders (TNCs, Turkish suppliers, trade unions and NGOs) provide valuable information to understand the de facto reasons effecting the employment of Syrian refugees and demonstrates how the massive employment of refugees in informal sector have affected the supply chain management model of Turkish textile industry.
Presenter: Emre Eren Korkmaz, post-doctoral researcher
Placement of refugees and subsequent labour market integration within a host country represents a key challenge for policymakers and has emerged as one of the most divisive topics in the public debate. Immigration policy in Switzerland adopts random placement of asylum seekers across its different language regions. Hence, this policy allows to estimate the causal effect of language skills on employment chances, as refugees are exogenously placed across regions where the spoken language could either match or deviate from individual language skills. The results of this 'natural experiment' indicate substantially higher probabilities of finding employment when asylum seekers are placed in regions with a lingua franca that matches their individual language skills. Additionally, the findings suggest that language course participation can offset the reduced likelihood of employment in cases of a language mismatch. While random placement of refugees may be desirable for political reasons, it is detrimental to the economic integration process. Thereby, the study draws relevant conclusions for a larger European immigration policy. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1304208
Presenter: Daniel Auer, PhD student, University of Lausanne & nccr - on the move
The Mobile Education Foundation has been established in 2016. Since its establishment has provided training to teachers and professors indiscriminate of their status. Currently the foundation is delivering a course for English Teachers in Amsterdam, in cooperation various Partners form Amsterdam, such as the vocational colleges. In autumn TME will start an official fast track in cooperation with the Teacher Trainers Institute of Leiden University for Teachers (ICLON) .
TME will present a case study, based on our experience while addressing refugees on their competencies rather than being a passive individuals and victims. Moreover we will make a case that our alumni will, in due course and when the situation allows might play an important role in education development in the Middle East. We will argue that this is crucial for development of democratic values and modern education.
Presenter: Marc van den Muijzenberg, Chairman, The Mobile Educator Foundation
The increasing number of unaccompanied and undocumented migrant children arriving in Europe has put the focus on the practices regarding proper age assessment. The established age has very significant impact on the legal status and reception conditions these children will have. Estimations have a certain level of uncertainty due to individual physical and psychological development during adolescence. Furthermore, some of the adopted methods are quite intrusive in nature or bear other risks for the child under investigation. The approach used shall be in line with the international child protection convention. The workshop provides an overview of the technical, legal and ethical issues with current practices and will elaborate a number of future options for policies in this area in the best interest of the child. It brings together speakers from the operational side at border control, from policy makers and from researchers in the field.
Organizer: Günter Schumacher, Program Manager, European Commission Joint Research Centre.
Presenters: (to be confirmed)
Workforce mobility, skills and labour market needs matching, fair recruitment and decent work conditions, social welfare and public perception are matters of public and business policy. These areas require a multi-partner approach to ensure the safety, security and successful migration and integration of migrants and refugees, especially in bridging opportunities for them to access and benefit from the labour market, where their skills are valued.
This session will explore how government, business and NGOs are working together to inform policy and develop innovative programs and initiatives to support migrants and refugees from migration to labour market integration, with creative examples from policy makers, advisors, employer associations and NGOs. They all have identified the importance of a shared responsibility to identify labour migration policy solutions that are flexible to business needs and also protect migrants. It is through collaboration among all stakeholders that migrants and refugees can economically and socially integrate, starting pre-arrival/pre-departure with pathways that connect employers and newcomers, including resume and interview support, workplace-focused assessment resources and job matching through to settlement and beyond. This session will highlight the collaborative ways the Government of Canada has been working with communities and stakeholder to support the landed refugees and migrants in communities across the country including the importance of partners, what is working and lessons learned. Additionally, learn about an initiative that engages government, the private sector and NGOs to build pathways to help skilled refugees find work and self-reliance through international employment. With more than 65 million people forcibly displaced and 21 million refugees outside their home countries, millions of talented, educated, and skilled individuals are currently prohibited from working in the countries where they have sought refuge - this initiative introduces a new opportunity for skilled, displaced individuals to re-enter the labour market.
The session will also look at New Zealand's new collaborative cross-government approach to settlement service provision and how it is supporting the implementation of the New Zealand Migrant Settlement and Integration Strategy. Government agencies have worked together to support the effective targeting of government resources to achieve the five Strategy outcomes: Employment, Education and Training, English Language, Health and Well-Being, and Inclusion. The presentation will focus on how this collaborative approach has been applied over the past 3 years to enable cross-agency consensus on funding priorities for migrant settlement and integration. It will also showcase some of the new and innovative settlement initiatives being led by government agencies in collaboration with local government, business and NGOs.
Sandra Saric, Vice President, Talent Innovation, Information and Communications Technology Council.
Gary D. Slaiman, Corporate Outreach Advisor, Talent Beyond Boundaries
Corinne Prince, Director General for Integration Branch and the FCRO, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC)
Stéphanie Winet, GFMD Business Mechanism Liaison Adviser, International Organisation of Employers (IOE)Anne-Marie Masgoret, Manager Settlement Strategy, Immigration New Zealand
This workshop will examine how "culturally inclusive" communities are better equipped to identify, reach and serve diverse ethnic communities and other complex populations, such as immigrants, individuals with chronic diseases, behavioral health issues, lack of stable housing and lack of family/community support systems.
Through round table discussions workshop attendees will examine the complex social structures and economic systems that contribute to inequity in healthcare delivery across systems of care and geographical borders.
Collectively workshop participants will identify the social determinants of health that overlap, such as limited English proficiency, unemployment, and lack of affordable housing, and can contribute to increased utilization of services.
Workshop participants will gain a comprehensive understanding of how an all-inclusive, multi-disciplinary and culturally competent system of care approach can be beneficial, reduce harm and be cost effective.
Organizer: Lucilia Prates-Ramos, Director, The Massachusetts Senior Medicare Patrol Program/Elder Services of the Merrimack Valley, Inc.
Presenters: (To be confirmed)
With the mass arrival of Syrian refugees into many EU countries and North America, there was an immediate emphasis on providing shelter, healthcare and social supports. As the refugees begin to settle in their new homes, there is a necessity to move beyond the provision of basic settlement needs, and to work toward integration. World leaders and governments recognize that successful inclusion and integration of newly arrived refugee populations is dependent on employment and economic prospects. But the labour market outcomes of Syrian refugees cannot be considered a government priority only. Employers in receiving communities are key stakeholders in the integration of refugee newcomers, the other side of the employment dichotomy. Despite this pivotal role, employers are frequently absent from discussions pertaining to employment program development and service delivery for refugees. Viewing refugee employment integration through an employer lens can encourage more focused program development to help meet the labour needs of industry and the labour market integration of refugees. Beyond corporate social responsibility, many employers recognize the experience, talents and skills refugees bring to the workforce, and realize that their companies will be in greater position to meet and respond to growing labour market needs by incorporating them. The creation of meaningful partnerships between employers and community organizations has facilitated collaborative solutions to addressing refugee and industry needs alike. In this workshop, representatives from Canada, Sweden, Germany and the United States will discuss the role of employers as invested allies in the economic integration of refugees. Best practices in engaging employers will be shared, as well as preliminary results from successful employer-led partnerships and initiatives.
Organizer: Devon Franklin, Project Manager, Hire Immigrants, Global Diversity Exchange, Ryerson University.
Hugo Ortiz Dubon, Owner & Diversity Strategist, We Link Sweden
Claudia Walther, Senior Project Manager, Bertelsmann Stiftung (Foundation)
(To be confirmed)
Providing migrants with responsive education in newcomer-receiving contexts, and ensuring that host societies are also engaged in appropriate education to foster equitable inclusion of newcomers among non-migrant populations, are of paramount importance in a world characterized by unprecedented human migration and resulting tensions.
Yet, educational responsiveness becomes complicated by the fact that migrants do not reflect a homogeneous identity group. As a result, there are different social perceptions toward, and negotiation tactics specific to, each subset identity; these tactics are also influenced by personal agency and other intersecting elements of identity such as gender identity and sexual orientation, racialization, linguistic background, and socioeconomic positions. The experiences of migrants in host societies and schools can be influenced by their particular category of migration (economic migrant, family reunification, refugee), and these categories intersect with other elements of identity to create unique experiences of marginalization and privilege, particularly in education systems with respect to access, supports, and opportunities. From an intersectionality perspective, human lives cannot be reduced to uni-dimensional categories, and a singular social category cannot adequately capture the realities and challenges of people's lived experiences.
This workshop will be conducted as a series of roundtable discussions with ample opportunity for audience input. Researcher and NGO perspectives from Canada and the Netherlands will consider migration and education and their intersection with various aspects of diversity (particularly gender, sexuality, migration category, and language). Presenters will explore how the lens of intersectionality, recognizing the complex identities and lived experiences of migrants, can poise education systems, policies, and social services to better respond to the unique needs of migrant populations and host societies.
Organizer: Clea Schmidt, Professor, University of Manitoba
Nathalie Piquemal, Professor, University of Manitoba
Peter Dankmeijer, Director, Global Alliance for LGBT Education
There have been increased interests among scholars and policy makers alike in the potential effects of overseas diasporas and return migration on international trade and economic development of both host and home countries of the immigrants. A recent World Bank publication shows that in the past decades, expatriates have come to play a critical and highly visible role in accelerating technology exchange and foreign direct investment in China, India, Israel and the United States. Some expatriates became pioneer investors before the widespread decentralization of the supply chain and the internal decentralization of authority assured major capital markets. Overseas talents of the developing nations helped advance the economic development of their home countries by sending back remittances, sharing information and technologies, and boosting bilateral trades between the two countries. Worldwide, remittance flows are expected to reach over $442 billion by 2016, about three times more than the size of international aid (World Bank, 2016).
The World Bank study suggests that the pool of expatriate expertise can be utilized for the benefit of developing countries through the collaboration of networks of diaspora professionals, which has been demonstrated by the development of Chinese high-tech zones such as Zhongguancun and Huaqiangbei. Migrants also serve as agents for exchanging knowledge and social networks. The current economic prosperity of India is largely attributable to the overseas Indians who migrated in the 1960s and 1970s, who strived to modernize their homeland. These diaspora networks could team up with the governments of developing countries and with external funding agencies to share policy and technological and managerial knowledge in order to improve local conditions and promote a development agenda within developing countries. This workshop will draw experts from the immigration and diaspora from Canada, China, and the UK to discuss the above-mentioned issue, focusing on present extensive literature review and empirical evidence and focusing more specifically on the following areas: The relationships between migration and international trade; Diasporas, remittance, and economic development; Return migration and outward FDI; Migration, entrepreneurship, and innovation; Diasporas, employment creation, and economic development. Policy recommendations will also be made with regards to the migration, trade, diasporas, and economic development and integration nexus.
Dr. Tony Fang, Stephen Jarislowsky Chair, Memorial University, University of Toronto (Canada) and IZA (Germany);
Dr. Huiyao Wang, President, Center for China and Globalization (China)
Howard Duncan (Executive Head, Metropolis Project); Tony Fang (Stephen Jarislowsky Chair & Professor); Huiyao Wang (President, Center for China and Globalization); Lu Mabel Miao (Secretary, Center for China and Globalization); Yipeng Liu (Senior Lecturer, University of Birmingham, UK)
Howard Duncan, Executive Head, Metropolis Project, Carleton University
Integration and resettlement are among many challenges both refugees and migrants face during their journey to a better life. However studies have shown that refugees face more acute difficulties as a result of previous exposure to torture and trauma. Empowering newly arrived refugees to act consciously and take responsibility in their lives in resettlement can reduce impact of refugee trauma and improve life quality by being an active part of society. Programs such as those shared during the workshop enable the participants to develop conceptual frameworks about the new society thus enhancing self-efficacy and sense of control.
NGOs in Australia and Denmark are implementing peer support group based programs providing newly arrived refugees with a peer community to discuss, reflect on and deal with resettlement issues, learn about new culture, reflect on challenges to family dynamics and develop coping strategies. In Australia the Service for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors (STARTTS) has run the program 'Families in Cultural Transition' (FICT) since 1996 (commenced 1991) and currently supports around 90 groups a year. In Denmark the Danish Refugee Council has run the Dutch program MindSpring since 2010 and 103 trainers have been trained to facilitate groups in approx. 50 % of the counties in Denmark.
This workshop will present best practice on psychosocial group based peer support methods involving bicultural facilitators and volunteer citizens in helping newly arrived refugees deal with life in resettlement. Examples from MindSpring and FICT will be outlined. Current research on the preventive effects and improvement of life quality of such methods will be detailed. The workshop will include facilitated discussion providing the possibility to compare best practices and interdisciplinary perspectives as well as reflect on challenges.
Organizer: Tove Madsen, Consultant at MindSpring, Danish Refugee Council (DRC)
Charlotte Sonne, Postdoc researcher, Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry
Susan Cunningham, Senior Project Officer, NSW Service for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors (STARTTS)
Tove Madsen, Consultant at MindSpring, Danish Refugee Council (DRC)
The phenomenon of jihadist radicalization has gained center-stage in public debates around the integration of Muslims in Europe, as it raises the issue of the motivations driving young people - who are overwhelmingly of immigrant descent - to adhere to Jihadism, questioning the process of migrant integration and the treatment of Muslim minorities in Europe. It appears that socio-economic integration can only partially explain the success of Jihadism; more profound fractures linked to Muslims' 'symbolic integration' (Césari, 2015), i.e. how they are accepted and perceived by European receiving societies, better account for the success of this form of violent extremism. The literature agrees that it is impossible to identify the 'profile' of would-be jihadists; it also seems hard to define univocal 'pathways' or 'models' of radicalization (McCauley & Moskalenko, 2008). Based on Latour's Actor-Network approach (2005), we contend that an ecological perspective is we ll-suited for grasping the appeal of the 'jihadist endeavour', whose 'plausibility' emerges from the empirical analysis of a number of biographies and first-person accounts that we carried out. This allows us to disentangle apparently contrasting evidence: on one hand, identitarian cleavages occurring in European societies (e.g. in France or Germany), which result in the spread of Salafist countercultures (specularly reflected in the growth of fierce anti-Muslim sentiments); on the other, the inexistent or very low levels of religiosity frequently reported in the accounts of jihadists' lives, which also include people with no Muslim or migrant background.
Presenter: Giulia Mezzetti, PhD student
Cultural adjustment which is almost unavoidable by recent global immigrants might result in immigrants' religion transformation. Many studies have found that immigrants' religion in the US have transformed into a new form of religious institutionalization reflecting the American civic and Christian culture. Does this kind of transformation among foreign immigrants happen in Japan, an emerging migrants' host in Asia? To what extent their practices and institutions are transformed?
Under shade of its myth of homogeneous society, Japan has a different policy from that of other hosting countries, in which immigrants might feel less socially forced for cultural assimilation. This paper attempts to discuss similar typical questions among minority but growing Muslim population in Japan. As assimilation is a strong approach of Japanese policy for the foreigners' integration, and Islam is assumed to be too foreign to the Japanese, we ask to what extent do Muslims transform their religious practices and institution.
Doing field works in the Indonesian mosque community groups in Tokyo between 2015 and 2017, including interviews with more than 50 Indonesian Muslims, the author finds that in the making of Islamic spaces and practices in Japan, Indonesian Muslims as well as others have to strategize themselves in accordance to certain Japanese custom. Yet the extent of their transformation depends on how much Muslims integrate themselves into the Japanese society. Recent migration perspective of transnationalism among Indonesians is also influential factor defining their religious transformation.
Presenter: Ali Amin, PhD student
Workshop given on Tuesday - round 1(workshop 1.13) and 2 (Workshop 2.13) + Wednesday round 1(workshop 3.13) and 2 (workshop 4.13) + Thursday round 1 (workshop 5.13) and 2 (workshop 6.13)
A program offered by the International Metropolis Project, the City of The Hague, and the Network "Integration through Qualification" (IQ) from Germany. The symposium is organized on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thurday, Round 1 and 2 (you can select one or more days), for more information see:
Workshop given on Tuesday - round 1(workshop 1.14) and 2 (Workshop 2.14) + Wednesday round 1(workshop 3.14) and 2 (workshop 4.14) + Thursday round 1 (workshop 5.14) and 2 (workshop 6.14)
A program offered by the International Metropolis Project, the City of The Hague, and MiReKoc at Koç University in Istanbul. The symposium is organized on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Round 1 and 2 (you can select one or more days), for more information see:
For migrants the orientation in a new country and a new administrative system can be confusing and intimidating. Language barriers and other misunderstandings in an unknown society can lead to detours in administrative matters, wrong decisions in the educational field or incorrect medical treatments. All of these 'side effects' of the lack of a shared language can seriously hamper the integration process into a society. Community interpreters or language and cultural mediators can build a bridge between newcomers and the community in a destination country. They are familiar with the society of the newcomers and they have themselves experienced the orientation process in the destination country. The workshop will look at three aspects of community interpreting: Which models for the qualification of community interpreters exist? Which work standards and work ethics are crucial for the professional work of community interpreters? How do community interpreters perceive themselves and how do they understand and interpret their role for integration and diversity in a society?
Ann-Kathrin Kobelt, research assistent / Technische Universität Dresden / Germany (tbc): Language and integration mediators' (SprInt) potentials for a successful integration of migrants. Focusingon SprInt's expertise in language(s) and culture(s). Doctoral thesis / working title
Ontario Council on Community Interpreting (tbc.): Professional standards for community interpreting services in Canada
Anne Pawletta, project manager and course instructor / Tür an Tür IntegrationsprojektegGmbH / Germany: Professional training for migrants as language and integration mediators in Germany.
Presenter: Anne Pawletta, Project manager, Tür an Tür Integrationsprojekte gGmbH
Moderator: Ms. Tlay Ates-Brunner, Managing Director, Tür an Tür Integrationsprojekte gGmbH
Diaspora organizations often have a particular characteristic of being politically linked to the 'host country' in which their members received citizenship or legal residence rights as well as to political processes in their country of origin. Often, connections between host country and home country are very intense, not only in terms of communication and resource transfer (monetary remittances) but increasingly through political means and pathways (Pries & Sezgin, 2012). Bocccagni, Lafleur and Levitt (2015) suggest that this dynamic has become especially clear after the Arab Spring, arguing that diaspora participation in homeland politics and social movements has become a global phenomenon. They explain the processes involved in terms of a 'circulation of people [which] is intimately connected to the circulation of political ideas, practices, and projects'. Transnational diaspora relations become part of a system of polycentric governance in which political actors in the homeland (political parties, governments, social movements, human rights organizations, mass media, etc.) become part of the host country's political struggles without being physically present and vice versa. For their constituencies, diaspora organisations can add to the country governance array by gaining voice and representation rights in the host country as well as connecting back to home countries, influencing the politics and policies of both (Ahmadov & Sasse, 2015). They can play a pivotal role as interlocutors in the way 'circulation' plays out. The paper explores what this means in practice and how diaspora networks add to a polycentric evolution of international relations and migration forces that shapes global governance.
Presenter: Kees Biekart, Associate Professor, International Institute of Social Studies
This paper aims to contribute to the field of immigrants' entrepreneurial performance. The debate on immigrant entrepreneurship has been dominated by cultural explanations, which argue that immigrants' entrepreneurial results are linked to groups' characteristics. However, cultural theories do not consider the huge differences in performances also within the same ethnic group. Furthermore, other important dimensions influence entrepreneurial performances, such as human and social capital, and the context where immigrants are embedded in. Moreover, the individual path of the immigrant entrepreneurs should be taken into account while analysing performances. Few studies have implemented a biographical approach, by analysing experiences and motivations of immigrant entrepreneurs at the starting phase of the business. Hence, the current study adopts a biographical approach, both at theoretical and at methodological level, which can allow to understand the main aspects that make the difference in immigrants' entrepreneurial performances, by exploring the narratives of immigrant entrepreneurs, who operate in the restaurant sector in two different Italian metropolitan areas: Milan and Rome. Through the qualitative method of biographical interviews, this study analyses four main dimensions and their combinations: a) individuals' migratory and entrepreneurial path: this aspect is particularly relevant to understand the biographical resources of immigrant entrepreneurs and their change and evolution during time; b) entrepreneurs' social capital, with a particular focus on their networks, through the adoption of a transnational perspective, that takes into account both the local level and the transnational connections. c) entrepreneurs' human capital, including both formal education and skills acquired through informal channels. The latter are particularly relevant, since in the interviews and data collected the role of informal transmission emerges. d) embeddedness within the social, political, and economic context, to understand the main constraints and opportunities both at local and at national level. The comparison between two different metropolitan areas within the same country helps to understand this dimension.
Presenter: Daniela Gnarini, researcher, Università degli Studi di Trento
With technological advances and the global character of many companies, traditional working patterns and workplaces are being transformed. Corporate expatriation is no exception. While much scholarship to date has focused on 'traditional expatriates' (e.g., white, middle-aged Western males in executive positions with an accompanying female spouse and children), little is known about a new wave of expatriates with far more diverse national and cultural backgrounds (e.g., those increasingly hailing from Global South countries and 'global nomads'), educational and professional credentials (e.g., technical experts, not senior managers; an increasingly feminised workforce; younger and early-career employees) and family responsibilities (e.g., female breadwinners, single and unaccompanied men and women, married couples without children, split families, same-sex partnerships, empty-nesters and people in semi-retirement). Under many national laws, organisations have a duty of care to employees (including contractors and volunteers) working outside of their country of origin. Duty of care includes moral and legal obligations regarding general safety and well-being that can be seen in company policies on health care, education, housing and pension needs of employees and their families. However, in light of shifting perceptions of social and legal responsibility, global mobility managers - in collaboration with a diverse array of national and local actors in their expatriate employees' countries of origin and of (temporary) assignment - face challenges in developing care policies appropriate to the needs, activities and expectations of expatriates widely esteemed for stimulating the local economies in which they live. In this session, we explore the challenges related to the duty of care of different stakeholders (e.g., employers and different levels of governments in source and receiving countries) to both the newer and older waves of expatriates. Presenters: Meghann Ormond, Researcher, Wageningen University & Research, Cultural Geography Chair Group
Workshop given on Tuesday - round 1(workshop 1.18e) and 2 (Workshop 2.18e) + Wednesday round 1(workshop 3.18e) and 2 (workshop 4.18e) If you want to attend this symposium you have to select round 1 and 2 in your personal program.
A Program offered by the International Metropolis Project, the City of The Hague and the research group Metropolitan Development of The Hague University of Applied Sciences. This workshop will find place outside the conference venue at The Hague University of Applied Sciences. Buses will bring you to this venue and back to the World Forum. For more information see: